The summer solstice finds us focusing on California native plants used here in the Osmosis gardens. The theme of our garden design is California Asian, that is to say, a garden structured and pruned in the Asian way yet representative of our place here on this continent through the employment of some native plant material in addition to plants from Asia.
The development of Asian gardens has been in play for literally a thousand years.The pruning techniques, plant and stone choices, and spatial relationships have been refined through trial and error as well as bursts of creative genius.The appropriate plant material has been culled from the native landscape again through trial and error.Appropriateness refers largely to prunability: can a plant be maintained at the human scale required by the garden plan while still evoking the essence of the natural surroundings.This process of local plant selection, while age-old in Japan, is in its infancy here in California. It is the goal of the Osmosis garden not only to create a sense of place (home) by using native plants but also to further the cultivation of them.Our garden is somewhat of a proving ground in that regard; experimenting with the possibilities and limitations of the plants surrounding us.
The plant choices we have made vary in their adaptability from co-operative to questionable to doubtful.Among those most easily facilitated are the vine maple, ceanothus, two forms of ribes (currant) and manzanita.The vine maple is pruned as any Japanese maple with reduction for scale and thinning for appearance.Ceanothus gets cutback as the new growth extends after flowering.This plant is best kept full and usually either grouped or with accompanying plants beneath as they tend to defoliate below.Our pink flowering currant represents one of spring’s first blooms while also providing a screen along a path.Most pruning here is done in winter to contain the plant from its inherent wildness keeping it the right height and thickness and out of the path.We have found that by shearing the sprawling ribes viburnifolium we can create a form resembling the Japanese tamamono or horizontal oval.Manzanita has been used in several ways from shearing into O-karikomi style (contoured drift) to general screen to focal point at front entry sign.Each of these is pruned in late spring-summer as new growth follows flowering. The shearing of Manzanita definitely falls into the category of experimentation but has shown to be effective for a minimum of 10 years.
Shore Pine at Osmosis
Among the plants still in the discovery stage or requiring fairly adept pruning would be the shore pine and Douglas fir (surprisingly!).Without too much difficulty the shore pine can be pruned in the style of Japanese black pine by a skilled technician. The Douglas fir lends itself to pruning quite readily as it exhibits the ability to freely break bud on bare wood, a characteristic rarely found in a conifer. This back budding allows for wholesale cutback and general pruning.The possibilities are seemingly limited only by the imagination and talent of the pruner.We have two that are documented to be over 50 years old and neither is over 7’ and both are full and lush shrub forms.
The tree with which we have had some success though cannot whole-heartedly recommend is the Monterey cypress. While this tree, known along the Pacific coast for it’s fabulous windswept shapes, can reach 40 to 60’ our specimen has remained at no more than 18’ with serious reductive pruning.The tree’s rapid growth and susceptibility to disease and infestation from hard pruning relegate it to doubtful in an ornamental garden.
We have barely touched the surface in our survey of native plants though some of the others tried include huckleberry, snowbell, and hazelnut.To find ourselves at the initiatory stage of this endless exploration gives a greater context to our deployment of Asian pruning and design techniques while lending a more familiar feel to exotic aesthetics.
Welcome to the spring edition of the Osmosis garden journal! As we know, calendar spring begins in March as does the emerging of new growth on plants. However, from a plant grooming standpoint we consider spring to be from approximately mid- April through mid-June here in Sonoma County, Northern California. During this period the tender new growth of plants begins to harden (toughen) up. It is at this point that we can plan our first prunings. Because everything’s happening at once, things can get rather rambunctious without a plan. At Osmosis, we map out a strategy of pruning priorities based on a number of factors. These are: plant role, plant requirements, future development, and degree to which new growth is contrary to garden’s design.
Regarding role, the key or focal trees are noted first while background plants are last to be addressed. There is middle category of auxiliary plantings (sheared shrubs, smaller accompaniment trees/shrubs) that are attended to on an as-needed basis.
With respect to timing, it is helpful to distinguish flower growth from foliar growth.Some plants like plum or camellia flower before shoot and leaf growth. As flowers are finishing, foliar growth begins. Therefore a plant like camellia, if properly tended to the year before, will need no pruning until new shoots have emerged and hardened up after flowering. Though grooming (deadheading, cleaning, insect inspection, etc.) may be ongoing, Rhododendrons, flowering slightly later than camellias, are pushed back on the pruning calendar a little further and for the same reason.
Some trees have special characteristics which must be respected. Japanese maples for example have very thin, delicate leaves as well as thin skin-like bark. Because of this tenderness, it’s important to prune Japanese maples before the onset of prolonged heat and drought, especially those exposed to afternoon sun. Vigorous males will sometimes push out a second flush of growth requiring pruning in summer, but beware.
With any pruning it is paramount to keep in mind the purpose of the pruning, usually two-fold: containment and aesthetics. Since scale (relative size) is so important to Japanese-style gardens the spring cutback is critical. For a natural look this reduction of height and width must be accompanied by thinning in order to achieve balance of the three dimensions including density.
In regards to containment, garden pines such as Japanese black and mugo are growing vigorously in spring. Their growth manifests as long tubular-like shoots known as candles. It is from these candles that needles emerge. They are also the mechanism by which pines accelerate their extension in space. A note on flowering: pines produce both cones often found on the candle tip and pollen sacs around the candle.At the right (or wrong) time these sacs can emit an almost suffocating amount of yellow pollen if brushed.Mugo pines that have achieved their appropriate design height should have all the candles cut back.This is known as candling.Some thinning may also be required to keep the plant from becoming too internally crowded. As far as black pines go there are scores of theories as to how best achieve containment and the desired styling.They all begin with the candles: whether or not to remove them; if so, when; and to what degree.At Osmosis we remove all except the smallest candles. This pruning neatens the tree, keeps it right-sized and leads to future development into the Japanese style. This style is achieved via the secondary growth that occurs over the summer following removal of candle. For maximum value of secondary growth it’s important that candling occur neither too early nor too late. The approximate time for candling is at the unfolding of the needles from the candle.
There are many other trees and shrubs at Osmosis, which are among those pruned as needed. They are tough enough to take harsher conditions and have few to no special requirements. These include among others juniper, nandina, oak, magnolia and dogwood.Many of these will be addressed in our summer edition.
Along with weeding the most important early spring task in the garden is the testing and preparation of the drip irrigation system. Each valve, line and emitter must be checked to be certain that water is being appropriately delivered to needy plants. In a garden (5 gardens, actually!) the size of Osmosis this annual refurbishing can be quite a project though we couldn’t get along without it. Along with clearing and checking the lines, the emitters and laser tubing are repositioned to compensate for the past year’s root growth.
Also at this time begins the monthly fertilizing of the Japanese bog iris and other water plants.
Rhododendrons often require additional acid fertilizer the regular application of which is begun as the flowers fade usually in middle May.
The very popular chamomile beds at Osmosis barely make it through the summer what with the nocturnal visits of raccoons and possums as well as the ever- disturbing tactics of gophers and moles. Consequently, these beds are re-done each spring at this time.Other shallow plantings such as woodland moss, elfin thyme and Irish moss are done now as well.
As rains diminish the containerized plantings which are not on irrigation must receive regular waterings and a schedule is set up for this.
Please enjoy this precious season as plant growth returns reminding us of our place as nature’s stewards.
Over 150 delegates from around the world gathered the National Japanese Garden Association Conference at the Morikami Gardens in West Palm Beach Florida March 7th and 8th. Leading experts from Japan and Europe along with US counterparts provided two days of inspiring content at the home of one of the most celebrated Japanese Gardens in the United States.
The conference theme was: Towards a Healthier World – Japanese Gardens As Places For Wellness and Transformation.The healing effects of this beloved landscape garden art form was presented from many perspectives ranging from public settings, studies of gardens built in the WWII Japanese internment camps, therapeutic settings and Zen Buddhist temples. In several fascinating presentations researchers presented their findings of scientific data on the effects of Japanese gardens on Alzheimer patients, hospice patience and community members with various handicaps. It was a profound confirmation of this fine tradition.
The Osmosis garden fit right into this program.
Meditation garden designer Robert Ketchell came from England to join Osmosis founder Michael Stusser and pruning expert Michael Alliger to present the story of the spa’s unique meditation garden, how it cultivates awareness, tells a story beyond words, and nurtures a mood of repose.
The 90-minute Osmosis session highlighted the founding intentions and collegial collaboration that seeded the success of the project. From the perspective of pruning it was shown how: anticipation and patience play out over time in ways that remind us of humility available to us in everyday life; the use of native plants reinforces a sense of place and human context in nature; the equanimity of empty space is shaped by pruning and design. The intimacy of detailed pruning techniques leads to a recognition of the unseen world of spirit.
The designer explained his use of narrative to engage garden viewers with his use of the Ox-herding parable from Zen as a way to guide on the journey to liberation. It was shown how spa programs use the garden for ritual; meditation, classes, and relaxation serve the deeper purpose of Osmosisto synergize the renaissance in the healing arts taking place in our culture along with the distinct healing properties that have been identified in horticultural therapy. These elements along with the quest for awakening seeded by the arrival of Buddhism in America reflected in the Zen parable make for a potent combination.
The Ox herding story is cast in stone in the landscape garden. This parable is both the physical and physic heart of Osmosis. We cannot avoid being reminded of it each time we visit the garden. Every day the alchemy of this ancient tale works its magic on the hearts and souls of guests and workers alike.
Osmosis presence at this prestigious international gathering allowed us to join into the growing association among builders and curators of Japanese gardens who are focused on the healing aspects of this treasured art form.
Left to right: Robert Ketchell, Michael Alliger, Michael Stusser and Martin Mosko
Welcome to the Osmosis garden journal! We in the garden will be writing monthly installments relating our horticultural endeavors. Attention will be given to pruning; grounds maintenance, such as weeding, sweeping, raking, and insect control; planting and transplanting.
Also to be discussed will be design considerations including the specific roles of plants and their relationship to each other as well as to other elements like stone and water. This may naturally lead us to touch upon the philosophical notions informing the design.
February stirs the gardener’s soul! For it is at once both winter and spring. The leaden winter shows signs of life; crocus and muscari peek out along with snowdrop and daphne! Last year’s garden becomes this year’s garden. We still have cool temperatures and short days. The wintry rains (thank you!) continue to wash clean the pines and other conifers allowing them to glisten amongst the bare branches of deciduous trees. Yet the new buds of pines emerge. Over next few months these buds will grow into the long shoots known as candles. For now we simply watch with anticipation of what’s to come.
Around mid-month flowering trees begin to bloom. Plums are first, usually around St. Valentine’s Day, marking the end of winter pruning for them though there’s still time for cherries and crabapples as well as fruiting trees like apple, pear and persimmon that don’t bloom until March.
We know, too, that roots begin to move in February indicating the cusp of transplanting season. Emerging roots will soon bridge the gap between dug-up rootball and freshly prepared soil. Moving plants too early can result in a dormant plant sitting in cold wet unwelcoming soil. Moving too late might mean missing an opportunity to maximize a plant’s accepting it’s new home.
As mentioned in January weeds abound with rain and in the Osmosis garden as with other Asian-inspired gardens we have expanses of gravel as well as paths that must be kept pristine. For control of emerging weeds we use a propane-powered torch rather than sprays. Hand pulling is out of the question for this minutiae.
Raised beds are turned and refurbished with fresh soil amendment. Mulching begun last fall continues. At Osmosis most of our fertilizing is done by keeping a healthy vibrant soil rich with worms and insect life. For this we use mulch that is nutrient balanced and rich in humus. Some specialty fertilizing (e.g. bog iris)is done as needed. Cutback of background overgrowth (e.g. willows) is completed. Irrigation supplies are inventoried and replenished in anticipation of summer use.
Please do enjoy this exciting transitional time in the garden.
Welcome to the Osmosis garden journal! We in the garden will be writing monthly installments relating our horticultural endeavors. Attention will be given to pruning; grounds maintenance, such as weeding, sweeping, raking, and insect control; planting and transplanting. Also to be discussed will be design considerations including the specific roles of plants and their relationship to each other as well as to other elements like stone and water. This may naturally lead us to touch upon the philosophical notions informing the design. It is fitting to begin in January not only because it’s the opening of the calendar year but also it being deep winter the garden is relatively at rest. The mention of seasons in Northern California often brings questions: when is spring? Do we have autumn distinct from summer? And when? So let’s name the seasons as we see them by the months they include here in our area keeping in mind that those in other areas (even micro-climates) may experience them differently. Winter: December through mid-March Spring: mid-March through mid-June Summer: mid-June through mid-October Autumn: mid-October through November For our purposes the seasons are based on air and soil temperature; sunlight levels and rainfall. Knowing the seasons is important because they present us with opportunities and deadlines. For instance, deciduous trees (those that annually lose all their leaves) begin doing so here roughly in November and December. This provides us a window within which certain pruning approaches may be employed. Though with the advent of new leaves around mid-March winter pruning ceases in order to allow the tree to benefit from the stored energy used to push out these leaves. Opportunity and deadline. Then let’s be on to January! Pruning: Cooler temperatures and shorter days of weaker sunlight bring a decrease in plant and insect activity. This period allows us to do two types of pruning: structural (i.e. heavier) and winter silhouette (i.e. finer). At Osmosis we have a Monterey cypress (like those on our Sonoma coast) with a design height of 15’. It takes significant pruning to prevent it from “escaping” to it’s natural height of 60’. This heavy structural pruning is relegated to winter since warmer season are conducive to insects which might attack the tree having been attracted by sap from large pruning wounds. Relative plant dormancy also minimizes need for photosynthesis allowing us to remove more than the usual percentage of branches and foliage. Pruning for the winter silhouette is also part of this season’s work. Here we are focused on deciduous trees such as Japanese maples, magnolias, flowering cherries and plums; refining winter’s leafless look into a thing of beauty. This pruning is subtle and may go unnoticed by the casual observer though reaping long-term benefits in the coming months. Maintenance of proper scale (height, width and density) is key in gardens influenced by the Japanese style, as is Osmosis. Winter silhouette pruning is the removal of relatively thicker branches as finer growth appears over the years. This allows for a lighter, more natural look in spring and summer. Less blocky. As with most Japanese garden pruning the work is as much or more about future development as the present result. Grounds maintenance: Irrigation: With drip irrigation turned off (ONLY IF CONSISTENT RAIN IS OCCURRING) some spot watering of areas under eaves or other protection may be required. Hose-bibs and other exposed pipes should be wrapped to prevent freezing. Weeding: Rain brings weeds and so one of spring’s predominant chores begins in winter. Raking/sweeping: While practically a daily chore raking is lessened once deciduous trees (e.g. oaks, willows) have shed, at Osmosis we have large quantities of bamboo and a giant bay tree that drop leaves year round. Repairs: As plant activity slackens time is allowed for small repairs of fences, gates, etc. Tools: Hand tools like hoes, rakes and shovels are given a thorough cleaning, sharpening and oiling. Misc.: Specific clump grasses are cut back. Supplies (mulch, fertilizer, etc.) are inventoried and re-ordered. Thank you! And please enjoy this season’s gift of RAIN.